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Bohrs Atomic Model

Bohrs Atomic Model Scientist Neils Bohr gave some corrections to Rutherford's atomic model in 1913. This corrected model is called the Bohr's atomic model. The main postulates of this model are - a) The electron moves around the nucleus in a circular motion, about an axis. This circular motion is called an energy level or orbit. They are also known as the shell or permanent orbit or principal energy level. Electrons do not absorb or emit any energy when they revolve these fixed orbits. If we express the permanent orbit as n, then n = 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.  In other words, if n = 1, the principal energy level is K,  when n = 2, L is the principal energy level,  when n = 3, M is the principal energy level,  when n = 4, N is the principal energy level, etc. b) According to Bohr's model, the angular momentum of an electron in an energy level is mvr =  nh / 2𝜋 . Here, m = the mass of the electron (9.11×10 -31  kg) r = the radius of the orbit that the electron follows v = the veloc

Importance of physical education

Importance of physical education

Physical education maintains the coordinated development of the body and mind. Any education is not complete without physical education. Physical education plays a vital role in including those qualities into people, which help individuals to grow as healthy, emotionally balanced, and responsible citizens. Men love recognition by society. It is through recognition that an individual's personality is developed.

Therefore, physical education has a significant role in developing leadership and personality. Our body is a combination of some organs. Again, each organ consists of different types of muscles, bone, artery, vein, etc. In order to keep the body fit a number of systems are functional. As a result of lack of balanced nutrition, lack of necessary physical movement, and required rest and sleep, the body does not develop properly and fails to keep fit. In fact, modern education puts emphasis on physical and mental development. The necessity of physical education at school is described sequentially.

A school is an institution, so a school is committed to the society and the country for social conservation, social reforms, and positive social changes. School is responsible for the proper development of human resources to develop the children of today as the good citizens of tomorrow. 

In this respect, the school plays dual roles. First, the prime duty of a school is to help its young students develop their personality, which includes physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of students. Secondly, schools help the students transform biological entitles into social ones. It includes the development of character, social values, and social adjustment.

Out of these two tasks, the first one is direct responsibility whereas the other one is the indirect responsibility of a school. Physical education is necessary for the all-round development of a student. According to Maslo, these needs of a student are divided into three stages:

  • Biological needs
  • Psychological needs
  • Social needs

Biological needs: 

Physical education has a direct contribution to the fulfillment of the biological needs of a student. The role of physical education is as follows -

  • Physical education fulfills the biological needs of the body of students by quick movements.
  • It makes the beautiful and strong physical structure of a student.
  • It develops the physical ability and capacity of students.
  • It develops immunity to diseases of students.
  • Students acquire expertise in sports through learning skills in various games.
  • Physical education develops a sound body for a sound mind.

Psychological needs:

  • Physical education builds a mental and intellectual foundation for children.
  • It removes the monotony and boredom of the everyday life of students.
  • It develops the character of students.
  • It develops self-awareness, self-dependence, self-realization, and self-respect among the students.
  • It helps students adjust to the environment.
  • It develops a sense of creativity among the students.
  • It keeps students away from harmful addictions.
  • It helps students choose the means of recreation and enjoyable pastimes.

Social needs:

  • Physical education helps students to develop a cooperative attitude through competition.
  • It helps to develop mental qualities which reflect social relationships through games & sports.
  • It develops leadership qualities.
  • It makes students familiar with social norms and culture.
  • It prompts national and international fraternity.
  • It creates liberal attitudes and a sense of social responsibility among the students.

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