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Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour Pressure

Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour Pressure What is a saturated solution? If in a water sugar solution, the amount of dissolved sugar is equal to the maximum amount that a given amount of water can dissolve at a certain temperature, then that solution is called a saturated solution. What is an unsaturated solution? If in a water sugar solution, the amount of dissolved sugar is less than that amount that a given amount of water can dissolve at a certain temperature, then that solution is called a saturated solution. What is saturated vapour? At a certain temperature in an enclosed space, if the amount of vapour present is equal to the maximum vapour capacity of that space, then that vapour is called saturated vapour. What is unsaturated vapour? At a certain temperature in an enclosed space, if the amount of vapour present is less than the maximum vapour capacity of that space, then that vapour is called unsaturated vapour. What is vapour pressure? Vapour enclosed in a container behaves

Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Astronomy

Astronomy Notes for Class 11-12 Big Bang The expansion of universe indicates an initial point from where it is expanding. About 15 hundred crore years ago it started from space time singularity.  At the beginning, it was infinitely dense and infinitely hot and it expands after big bang in all directions. After starting to expand it become cooler and goes through some intermediate changes. If a star has enough mass and density then its gravity field will be so strong that no light can emit from that star. Before travelling away from the star, gravitational field will be so strong that no light can emit from that star.  Before traveling away from the star, gravitational pull will take that back. Scientist Michell thought that this type of stars can be in huge amount. We can not see those stars because no light emits from them. We can only feel the gravitational pull those of that object. These objects are called black hole. Artificial Satellite A man made spacecraft at a definite height

Introduction to Modern Physics

Introduction to Modern Physics for Class 11 -12 Frame of Reference The coordinate system in a three dimensional space with respect to which we can describe the motion of an object is called frame of reference. Inertial Frame of Reference The frame of references moving with constant velocity to each other in which Newton's law of motion can be applied are called inertial frame of reference. Galilean Transformation Taking time as absolute and ignoring postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations between two sets of coordinates of two fame of references moving with velocity constant relative to each other and time are called Galilean transformation. Lorentz Transformation Taking time as non absolute and applying postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations two sets of coordinates two frames of reference moving with constant velocity relative to each other and time are called Lorentz transfo

Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

Physical Optics

Physical Optics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Poynting vector The amount of energy passing through unit area placed perpendicular to direction of a electromagnetic wave propagating is called poynting vector. Wave front At any moment, locus of particles on a wave which are in phase is called wave front. Plane wave front Locus of particles which are in phase or parallel rays coming from infinity is called plane wave front. Slit The small rectangular opening which has long length but a very small width is called slit. Coherent source Two light sources are said to be coherent if they emit waves having constant phase difference. Interference fringe When interference takes place on a plane or screen, some parallel bright and dark lines or pattern are found. This bright or dark patterns are called interference fringes. Diffraction The spreading of light rays passing through narrow opening or around corner is called diffraction of light. Fresnel's class of diffraction Light source at finite dist

Geometrical Optics

Geometrical Optics Notes for Class 11 - 12

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current Notes for Class 11 - 12 Electromagnetic Induction The process of inducing temporary electromotive force or electricity by means of a moving magnet or current conducting coil in a closed circuit is called electromagnetic induction. Magnetic flux Product of area of a surface and perpendicular component of magnetic field in the surface is called magnetic flux. Magnetic flux density The magnetic flux density refers to the flux per unit area. Self-induction A magnetic flux associated with a coil changes due to change in electric flow through the coil or due to change in motion of the coil. The electromagnetic induction taking place due to change is called self-induction. Co-efficient of self-induction If one unit of current flows in a coil, total amount of magnetic flux associated with the coil is called co-efficient of self-induction. Mutual induction The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction produced in secondary coil due to the non-unif

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism Notes for Class 11 - 12 Ampere's Law The line integral of the magnetic field in a continuous closed path or loop is ยต₀ times the total electric current passed in the region enclosed by the path. Tesla When 1 coulomb of charge moves at a velocity of 1 ms -1 perpendicularly to the direction of a magnetic field experiencing 1 N of force, the magnetic of that magnetic field is called 1 tesla (T). Hall effect and Hall voltage When an electric conductor is set up perpendicularly at a magnetic field, a potential difference develops perpendicular to both electric current and magnetic field. This is the Hall effect and the produced potential difference is called voltage or Hall voltage. Magnetic Axis An imaginary line joining the two poles of a terrestrial magnet is called the magnetic axis. Magnetic Middle Plain The imaginary plane perpendicular to the magnetic axis at the midpoint is called the magnetic middle plane. Geographical axis An

Current Electricity

Current Electricity Notes for Class 11 - 12 Resistance The property of a conductor which opposes the flow of current is called resistance of that conductor. Kilowatt-hour The amount of electrical energy spent in one hour by a device having a power of 1 kilowatt is called a kilowatt-hour (kWh). Electrical cell The device by means of which electric energy is produced from chemical energy and the flow of current is kept ongoing is called an electrical cell. Electromotive force The work done to bring one unit of charge along with the electric cell from one point to that point by rotating it through the whole circuit, i.e. the amount of energy supplied by the electric cell to keep the flow in motion is called electromotive force of that cell. Shunt A very small resistance that is used in devices by connecting to it in parallel combination so that excess current can pass through it in order to protect the electrical device from damage due to excess current flow is called a shunt. Potentiomet

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