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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Astronomy

Astronomy Notes for Class 11-12 Big Bang The expansion of universe indicates an initial point from where it is expanding. About 15 hundred crore years ago it started from space time singularity.  At the beginning, it was infinitely dense and infinitely hot and it expands after big bang in all directions. After starting to expand it become cooler and goes through some intermediate changes. If a star has enough mass and density then its gravity field will be so strong that no light can emit from that star. Before travelling away from the star, gravitational field will be so strong that no light can emit from that star.  Before traveling away from the star, gravitational pull will take that back. Scientist Michell thought that this type of stars can be in huge amount. We can not see those stars because no light emits from them. We can only feel the gravitational pull those of that object. These objects are called black hole. Artificial Satellite A man made spacecraft at a definite height

Introduction to Modern Physics

Introduction to Modern Physics for Class 11 -12 Frame of Reference The coordinate system in a three dimensional space with respect to which we can describe the motion of an object is called frame of reference. Inertial Frame of Reference The frame of references moving with constant velocity to each other in which Newton's law of motion can be applied are called inertial frame of reference. Galilean Transformation Taking time as absolute and ignoring postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations between two sets of coordinates of two fame of references moving with velocity constant relative to each other and time are called Galilean transformation. Lorentz Transformation Taking time as non absolute and applying postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations two sets of coordinates two frames of reference moving with constant velocity relative to each other and time are called Lorentz transfo

Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

Geometrical Optics

Geometrical Optics Notes for Class 11 - 12

Physical Optics

Physical Optics Notes for Class 11 - 12

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism Notes for Class 11 - 12 Ampere's Law The line integral of the magnetic field in a continuous closed path or loop is µ₀ times the total electric current passed in the region enclosed by the path. Tesla When 1 coulomb of charge moves at a velocity of 1 ms -1 perpendicularly to the direction of a magnetic field experiencing 1 N of force, the magnetic of that magnetic field is called 1 tesla (T). Hall effect and Hall voltage When an electric conductor is set up perpendicularly at a magnetic field, a potential difference develops perpendicular to both electric current and magnetic field. This is Hall effect and the produced potential difference is called voltage or Hall voltage. Magnetic Axis An imaginary line joining the two poles of terrestrial magnet is called magnetic axis. Magnetic Middle Plain The imaginary plain perpendicular to the magnetic axis at midpoint is called magnetic middle plain. Geographical axis An imaginary line jo

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current Notes for Class 11 - 12

Current Electricity

Current Electricity Notes for Class 11 - 12 Resistance The property of a conductor which opposes the flow of current is called resistance of that conductor. Kilowatt-hour The amount of electrical energy spent in one hour by a device having a power of 1 kilowatt is called a kilowatt-hour (kWh). Electrical cell The device by means of which electric energy is produced from chemical energy and the flow of current is kept ongoing is called as electrical cell. Electromotive force The work done to bring one unit of charge along with electric cell from one point to that point by rotating it through the whole circuit, i.e. the amount of energy supplied by the electric cell to keep the flow in motion is called electromotive force of that cell. Shunt A very small resistance which is used in devices by connecting  to it in parallel combination so that excess current can pass through it in order to protect the electrical device from damage due to excess current flow is called shunt. Potentiometer T

Static Electricity

Static Electricity Notes for Class 11 - 12 Coulomb's Law The electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force acts the line joining the two charges and its value depends on the nature of the medium. Electric field The area in which there is the effect of a charge is called electric field. Intensity of electric field If a positive unit charge is placed inside an electric field, the force acting on it is called intensity of electric field. Equipotential plane If all the points on a plane have the same potential, the plane is called an equipotential plane. Dipole moment The product of distance between two charges and magnitude of any of two charges is called dipole moment. Quantization of charge Atom and such objects can have charge which is equal to the integral multiple of minimum charges. This is called quantization of charge. Dielectric constant Rati

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