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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

What is physics?

What is physics?


The branch of science which deals with matter and energy is called physics. The main objectives of physics are to establish the relation between matter and energy and to express it quantitatively on the basis of observation, experimentation, and analysis.

Physics, science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe.

Physics is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study encompasses not only the behavior of objects under the action of given forces but also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields.

Physics is basic physical science. Until rather recent times physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature.

Physics plays an important role in all the natural sciences. However such fields have branches in which physical laws and measurements receive special emphasis, bearing such names as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and psychophysics. 

Who is the father of Physics?

Issac Newton is the father of physics.


Who is the father of Modern Physics?

Albert Einstein is the father of Modern Physics.


Who is the father of Observational Physics?

Galileo Galilei is the father of Observational Physics.

Who is the mother of physics?

Marie Curie is the mother of physics. As the first of the Curie family's legacy of life Nobel Prizes, she was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first and the only woman to win the Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two scientific fields.


What is physics in simple words?

Physics is the science of matter and how matter interacts. Matter is any physical material in the universe. Everything is made of matter. Physics is used to describe the physical universe around us, and to predict how it will behave.

Branches of physics list


Branches of Physics


In the practical field, the common branches of physics are:

  • Mechanics
  • Classical physics
  • Modern physics
  • Thermodynamics
  • Electricity 
  • Magnetism
  • Geo physics
  • Plasma physics
  • Optics
  • Sound and oscillation
  • Electronics
  • Chemical physics
  • Engineering physics
  • Solid-state physics
  • Quantum physics
  • Nuclear physics
  • Particle physics
  • biophysics
  • Astrophysics
  • Condensed matter physics
  • Molecular physics
  • Mathematical physics
  • Health physics
  • Econophysics
  • Relativistic physics
  • Atomic physics

7 Branches of Physics


Mechanics : Motion and its causes; interactions between objects.

Thermodynamics : Heat and Temperature

Vibrations and Waves Phenomena : Specific types of repetitive motions-springs, pendulums, sound.

Optics : Light (including mirrors), lenses, colors.

Electromagnetism : Electricity, magnetism, and light including electrical charge, circuits, and magnets.

Relativity : Particles moving at any speed, including very high speeds.

Quantum Mechanics : The behavior of submicroscopic and subatomic particles.


Importance of physics in our daily life

In our daily life, we hardly find a device in which laws of physics are not involved.
Examples

  • Pulleys are used to lift heavy loads.

  • Electricity is used to get light, heat, and mechanical energy that drives fans and electric motors.

  • Means of transportation such as cars and airplanes, domestic appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and microwave ovens, etc.

  • The means of communication such as radio, TV, telephone, and computer are the result of applications of physics. These devices have made our lives much easier and faster and more comfortable than in the past.

  • The computer is the invention of physics.

Important laws of physics

  • Archimedes Principle
  • Avagadro's law
  • Ohm's law
  • Newton's law
  • Coulomb's law
  • Stefan's law 
  • Pascal's law
  • Hooke's law
  • Bernoulli's Principle
  • Boyles's law
  • Charle's law
  • Kepler's law
  • Law of conservation of energy
  • Tyndall effect
  • Graham's law

Scope of Physics


Physics is the key to all science. It is the fundamental branch of science because the foundation of other subjects is based on the principles of physics. For example, the principle of conservation of energy is a basic principle of physics used to explain the wide range of science starting from the structure of atoms to weather forecasting. Starting from Engineering to Medical Science, Astronomy to Oceanology, Biology to Psychology the instruments of Physics are used. For the systematic study of physics, we can divide it into the following branches : 

(1) Mechanics 

(2) Heat and thermodynamics 

(3) Sound 

(4) Optics 

(5) Electricity and Magnetism 

(6) Solid State Physics 

(7) Atomic Physics 

(8) Nuclear Physics 

(9) Quantum Physics and 

(10) Electronics

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