Concepts of Chemistry


Chapter - 1: Concepts of Chemistry

👉 All Chapter Contents 👈 

Learning outcomes
  • Introduction to Chemistry
  • The Scopes of Chemistry
  • Relation Between Chemistry and Other Branches of Science
  • The Importance of Studying Chemistry
  • The Process of Research in Chemistry
  • Safety Measures in Chemistry Laboratory and in use of Chemicals

Concepts of Chemistry Note

Introduction to Chemistry

What is chemistry?

Chemistry is one of the branches of natural science that discusses structures of matter, their nature, and changes.

Explain the concept of chemistry.

Chemistry is one of the unique branches of science. Chemistry is known as the science of life. The use of chemistry has been increasing since the ancient ages. The ancient use of chemistry by the Al-chimes has given birth to the present chemistry. Because chemistry has a wide spread. Chemistry is always used for the welfare of humans and the environment.

Why is chemistry called central science?

Chemistry has a deep relation with all branches of science. Chemistry plays a major role in understanding the mystery of life in medical science, investing in the cause of diseases and their treatment. Physics mainly works with bodies that are made of atoms and molecules. So, chemistry is really important in developing proper knowledge of physics. The base of computer science is semiconductor and computer plays the main role in preparing and purifying them. These are the reasons why chemistry is called central science.

What is Alchemy?

The chemistry practice of ancient and medieval age Egypt is known as Alchemy.

Which civilization does 'alchemy' include?

'Alchemy' indicates Egyptian civilization.

Which language is alchemy word from?

Alchemy is from Arabic "Al-chimia" word.

Since when was chemistry used?

The use of chemistry has been going on for a few thousand years. The Indian civilization started using color to make clothes more attractive almost 5000 years ago. Old civilizations used chemistry technology to extract expensive metals from the mines.

When did the use of color start?

The Indian civilization started using color to make clothes more attractive almost 5000 years ago.

What kind of substance is color?

Color is a type of organic and inorganic chemical that absorbs certain wavelength of radiation from the visible light ray.

Why does ripe mango taste sweet?

There remain various organic acids like succinic acid, malloic acid, etc. in a green mango which make it sour. As it ripens, these acids transform into glucose and fructose in chemical reactions and turn the mango sweet.

Why do we take antacids for acidity in the stomach?

Acidity occurs in the stomach when excess hydrochloric acid is generated inside. Antacid contains aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. These two compounds neutralize hydrochloric acid.

Due to the action of digestion, excess hydrogen chloride (HCl) is produced in the stomach of individuals which produces pain in the stomach, known as acidity.

To neutralize this pain, an antacid tablet Al(OH)3 is taken. Because HCl is an acidic substance and Al(OH)3 is a basic substance. Here Al(OH)3 reacts with HCl and neutralizes acid to produce salt and water and it is a chemical reaction known as a neutralization reaction. The reaction taking place is as follows:

Al(OH)3 + 3HCl → AlCl3 + 3H2

Due to this neutralization reaction in the stomach, the acid produced in the stomach is neutralized and abdominal pain or acidity is reduced.

The Scopes of Chemistry

What is ink?

Ink is a toxic carbon particle made by burning wood and coal.

What is an organic compound?

Chemical compounds that have one or more carbon atoms attached to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc in covalent bonding, they are called organic compounds.

What is cellulose?

The structural component of the plant body is called cellulose.

What is heavy metal?

Any metal with a specific gravity of 5.0 or greater, especially the ones which are toxic to organisms are called heavy metal. For example: mercury, lead, arsenic, coblat, etc.

What time period is known as Bronze age?

Time period from 3000 BC to 1000 BC is known as Bronze age.

How will you consider the scope of chemistry in the garment industry? Explain.

Shirts, pants, and wool are some of the products produced in the garment industry. These are made of organic compounds and fiber. The fibers are collected from different compounds using a chemical reaction, which is a part of chemistry. Again, clothes are produced in the textile fabrics industry by combining these artificial or natural fibers and colorants. The combination of fiber and colorants is also a part of chemistry.

Relation Between Chemistry and Other Branches of Science

What is photosynthesis?

The physiological process where plants use chlorophyll in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrates and O2 by reacting CO2 and water, that is called photosynthesis.

What are the topics studied in biology?

The birth, growth, diseases, and different biochemical reactions of organisms are studied in biology.

How do plants produce carbohydrates?

Plants produce carbohydrates using the photosynthesis process.

What is chemical fertilizer?

Chemical substances containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc. elements, which act as a nutrient for soil are called chemical fertilizers.

What kind of compound is protein?

Protein is an organic compound.

Write two relations between biology and chemistry.

Chemistry is deeply involved with biology. Two relations are mentioned below-

a) Plants produce glucose in their green parts using the photosynthesis process. This is a chemical reaction. In the presence of sunlight, plants produce glucose by reacting with water and carbon dioxide.

b) Again, different organisms break down the food they eat using respiration and produce energy and carbon dioxide. This is also a chemical reaction. Organisms break down protein into glucose and amino acid which is also produced by chemical reaction.

Therefore, it can be said that biology and chemistry are related to each other.

What kind of relationship is there between chemistry and physics? Explain.

Chemistry and Physics are different branches of science. But they are dependent on each other in case of explanation and theoretical concepts etc. For example, Physics discusses the theoretical explanation of heat and electricity. But chemistry discusses how this heat produces electricity which flows as electrons in metal wires.

Similarly, physics discusses the production and uses of computers, magnets, and different electronics theories. But chemistry discusses the recycling of these is no doubt that there is a relation between chemistry and physics.

The Importance of Studying Chemistry

What are preservatives?

The chemicals that are used in a certain amount to store foods for a long time are called preservatives.

Write the names of heavy metals?

Heavy metals are - mercury, lead, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, etc.

What is the importance of research in the present world?

Our lives have become beautiful, work has become easy, and quality of life has developed all thanks to science. The role of science is huge in education, treatment, agriculture, communication, and in all other sectors. This role of science has been possible only because of research. So, there is no alternative to research when it comes to technological development and solving remaining problems.

The Process of Research in Chemistry

What is research in chemistry?

The process to gain knowledge by experimenting is known as research.

What is the first condition of research work?

The first condition of research work is the topic section.

What is called a chemistry laboratory?

The place where experiments or research on chemistry are done is called a chemistry laboratory.

Safety Measures in Chemistry Laboratory and in Use of Chemicals

What is a combustible substance?

The substances that easily catch fire and produce a lot of heat are called combustible substances.

What is the most dangerous thing in the chemistry lab?

The most dangerous thing in the chemistry lab is the use of unlabelled beakers.

What kind of substance usually produces heat with the reaction?

The combustible substance usually produces heat with a reaction.

What is called an exothermic reaction?

When heat is released at the time of producing the products from the reactants, the reaction is called an exothermic reaction.

What is trefoil?

The international radiation symbol is called trefoil.

What does the symbol 'fire on a circle' indicate?

Oxidizing agent.

What are the negative effects of using chemicals?

Chemicals are used for different experiments in chemistry. But they can be harmful to humans and the environment when they are not properly used.

a) Chemicals are used to keep fish and meat fresh and ripen fruits which is harmful to health.

b) Preservatives are used to preserve different food products which are risky for health.

c) Excessive use of chemical fertilizer harms plants.

d) Different harmful substances enter our bodies through blood by using artificial cosmetics, colors, etc.

Secondary Chemistry

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