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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ



Secondary Chemistry

Higher Secondary Chemistry, Part-1

Safe Use of Laboratory

  • Laboratory Principles: Dress, Safety Glass, Mask, and Hand Gloves
  • Safe Way of Using Glassware
  • Techniques of cleaning of Laboratory, Equipment, and Glassware
  • Paul-Bunge Balance, Digital Balance (2-digit and 4-digit)
  • Measuring Cylinder
Qualitative Chemistry
Periodic Properties and Chemical Bonding of Elements
Chemical Changes
Vocational Chemistry

Higher Secondary Chemistry, Part-2

Environmental Chemistry

  • Components of Atmosphere
  • Effects of Changes of Temperature, Pressure and Humidity of Air in causing Cyclones and Tidal Bores
  • Laws of Boyle, Charles, Avogadro, Gay-Lussac; Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure and Graham's Law of Diffusion
  • Ideal Gas
  • Real Gas
  • Diffusion
  • Effusion
  • Rate of Diffusion
  • Law of diffusion
  • Postulate of Kinetic theory of Gases
  • Determination of Kinetic Energy from Equation of Kinetic Theory
  • Application of Gas Laws in Cylinder Gases
  • The Chemical Reaction and Nitrogen Fixation in Atmosphere during Thunderstorm
  • Industrious Gaseous Pollutants and Air Pollution
  • Sources of Green House Gases Effects
  • Uses of CFCs and Depletion of Ozone Layer
  • Causes of Acid Rain & its Prevention
  • Theory of Arrhenius
  • Bronsted - Lowry Theory 
  • Conjugate Acid - Base
  • Lewis Theory Related to Acids and Bases
  • Sources of Fresh Water
  • Importance of Fresh Water
  • Standard of Measurement of Purity and Hardness of Surface Water (pH, DO, BOD, COD, TDS)
  • Hardness of Water
  • Estimation of Hardness of Water
  • pH of Water
  • Dissolved Oxygen in Water, DO
  • Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD
  • Total Dissolved Solid, TDS
  • Industrial Wastes and Water Pollution
  • Causes of Water Pollution 
  • Prevention of Water Pollution from Source
  • Natural Pollution of Water
  • Arsenic Pollution of Water
  • Effect of Water Pollution
  • Food Chain Contamination by Heavy Metals
  • Classification of solutions: The Process of Dissolving of Pollutants in Water and Air

Organic Chemistry

  • Classification of Organic Compounds
  • Homologous Series
  • Functional Group
  • Students Activities: Identification of series of organic compounds on the basis of functional group
  • Isomerism of Organic Compound and its classifications
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Difference between Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds
  • Addition Reaction of Aliphatic Compounds
  • Substitution Reaction of Aliphatic Compounds
  • Elimination Reactions of Aliphatic Compounds
  • Multi Substitution Reactions of Benzene
  • Orientation of Substituents in Benzene Ring
  • Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne, Alkyl/Aryl Halide, Alcohol, Ether, Aldehyde, Ketone, Carboxylic Acid, Ester, Amine
  • IR Spectroscopic Absorption/ Emission band for the Identification of Functional Group
  • Preparation of Glycerine and Phenol and Identification Reactions
  • Nitroglycerine, TNT, Dettol, Paracetamol Preparation and Uses
  • Role of Melting point and Boiling point to Detect Organic Compounds and Their Purity
  • Polymer and Plasticity
  • Addition and Condensation Polymer Molecules
  • Role of Organic Compounds in Society and Environment

Qualitative Chemistry

  • Chemical Calculation and Molar Volume of Gases
  • Volume of Gases from Chemical Equation
  • Determination the Mass and Volume of Gas from Reactant
  • Conversion of Molarity into Percentage and ppm Unit
  • Acid - Base Neutralization Reaction and Promotion Point
  • Oxidation Reaction
  • Reduction Reaction
  • Oxidising agent and Reducing agent
  • Indicator
  • The Application of Beer Lambert Law to Determine the Concentration of the solution
  • Quantitative Analysis of Atomic Absorption, UV-Visible Spectroscopy HPLC and GC


  • Electrical Conductors and its Classification
  • Measurement of Electrolytes Using Faraday's First Law
  • Activity Series of Metals
  • Comparative Activity Tests of Metals
  • Oxidation Half-Reactions and Reduction Half-Reactions
  • Electrode and its Classifications
  • Electrochemical Cell of one and two Component (Electrolyte and Galvanic)
  • Formation of Rechargeable Battery (Lead Storage and Lithium), Procedure and Recharge process
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of using Lead Storage and Lithium Battery
  • Fuel Cell and its Classification
  • Anode, Cathode and Fuel of Fuel Cell
  • Formation of Fuel Cell and Reactions
  • Advantage of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  • Measurement of pH Using pH Meter

Economical Chemistry

  • The Natural Gas Fields of Bangladesh and Uses of Natural gas
  • Coal Fields in Bangladesh Quality and Uses of Coal
  • Probability of Industrialization in Bangladesh on Basis of Fuel Resources
  • Introduction to Mentionable Chemical Industries
  • Basic Principle of Urea, Glass, Ceramic, Pulp-Paper and Cement Production
  • Principles of Leather Tanning
  • Pollutants of  Cement, Urea, Leather, Textile and Dyeing Industries
  • Principle of Controlling Air Pollution
  • Principle of Action of Effluent Treatment plant
  • Recycling of Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Glass, Paper and Plastic Substances
  • Importance of Recycling of Iron, Aluminium, Copper, Glass, Paper and Plastic in Social and environmental Fields
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal-Based Power Plant
  • Concept of Nanoparticle and Nanotechnology
  • Comparison Among Atom, Molecule and Nanoparticle
  • Comparison of Physical Properties between Nanoparticles and Normal State of Matter
  • Probability of Application of Nanoparticles in Industries


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