# States of Matter

## 👉All Chapter Contents👈

Learning outcomes-
• Three States of Matter

• Kinetic Theory of Particles

• Diffusion

• Effusion

• Burning of a Candle and the Three States of Wax

• Melting and Boiling

• Distillation and Sublimation

## Three States of Matter

What is the matter?

Anything that has a certain mass and occupies space is matter.

What is the intermolecular distance?

The distance between the molecules of a substance is called intermolecular distance.

The volume of gas changes depending on temperature-explain.

The volume of gas increases when the temperature is increased. Because the gaseous particles move far from each other when they start moving randomly by gaining excessive energy. Again, the intermolecular force of attraction increases by decreasing temperature so the volume of gas decreases.

Explain the compressibility of matter in different states.

Matter can exist in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state. The molecules in solids stay very close to each other in a fixed state because of a strong force of attraction. So, there is almost no compressibility of matter in this state. The liquid is slightly compressible in pressure and gas is really compressible.

## Kinetic Theory of Particles

What is the kinetic theory of particles?

The attempt to prove the states of substances using the intermolecular force of attraction and the kinetic force of the particles is known as the kinetic theory of particles.

What is particle referred to in the kinetic theory?

The particle referred to in the kinetic theory is the smallest unit of a substance that make the substances.

What do you mean by intermolecular force of attraction?

The force by which molecules of a substance remain together is called the intermolecular force of attraction. The particles of a solid substance have a higher intermolecular force of attraction. The intermolecular force of attraction of particles in liquids is less than in solids. The molecules in gases stay further than those of liquids or solids so the intermolecular force of attraction is also very low among them.

What do you mean by the kinetic theory of particles?

The attempt to prove the states of substances using the intermolecular force of attraction and the kinetic force of the particles is known as the kinetic theory of particles. When the particles inside a substance remain in a very high force of attraction, they stay together and cannot move that much. This is the solid state. When heat is applied to such a solid substance, the particles start to vibrate. When more heat is applied, the particles lose some of their force of attraction and they start some movement. This state of matter is called a liquid. When more heat is applied to this liquid state of the substance, the particles receive the heat, and the kinetic force in them is increased. This kinetic force is increased to a level where they lose the intermolecular force of attraction almost completely and start to move freely. This is the gaseous state. When more heat is applied to this state of the substance, the particles will only increase their speed of movement.

## Diffusion

What is diffusion?

The tendency of solid, liquid, or gas to spread spontaneously and uniformly in any medium is called diffusion.

What do you mean by diffusion?

The tendency of solid, liquid, or gas to spread spontaneously and uniformly in any medium is called diffusion. For example: If a ripe jackfruit is kept in a room, its scent spreads all around. This is diffusion. The diffusion rate of a substance depends on its mass and density.

What is the diffusion rate?

The amount of space in a medium where a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance spontaneously spreads around in a unit of time is called the diffusion rate of the substance.

## Effusion

What is effusion?

The passage of gases from a high-pressure zone to a low-pressure zone through a fine pore is called an effusion.

What is CNG?

Compressed methane gas at high pressure is called CNG or Compressed Natural Gas.

## Burning of a Candle and the Three States of Wax

What is combustion?

The process by which any element is burnt in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is called combustion.

What kind of compound is wax?

Wax is a type of organic compound.

What is produced by burning wax?

Burning of wax produces CO2, H2O, heat, and light energy.

## Melting and Boiling

What is melting?

The process of transforming a solid matter into liquid by means of applying heat is called melting.

What is the melting point?

At normal pressure (1 atm) the temperature at which a solid matter turns into a liquid state is called the melting point of that solid.

What is the boiling point?

At normal pressure (1 atm), the temperature at which a liquid matter turns into a gaseous state is called the boiling point of that liquid.

How much is the melting point of NaCl?

The melting point of NaCl is 801°C.

## Distillation and Sublimation

What is distillation?

The process of heating a liquid into vapor and then retrieving the liquid from the vapor by cooling it is called distillation.

What is condensation?

The process of cooling the vapor into a liquid substance is called condensation.

What kind of substance is camphor?

Camphor is a sublimated substance.

## Secondary Chemistry

• Chapter - 1 : Concept of Chemistry
• Chapter - 2 : States of Matter
• Chapter - 3 : Structure of Matter
• Chapter - 4 : Periodic Table
• Chapter - 5 : Chemical Bond
• Chapter - 6 : Concept of Mole and Chemical Counting
• Chapter - 7 : Chemical Reactions
• Chapter - 8 : Chemistry and Energy
• Chapter - 9 : Acid-Base Balance
• Chapter - 10 : Mineral Resources: Metal - Nonmetal
• Chapter - 11 : Mineral Resources: Fossils
• Chapter - 12 : Chemistry in Our Lives
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