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Why is biology divided into the physical and applied branches?

Why is biology divided into the physical and applied branches? In biology, living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, reproduction, classification, origin, and evolution are discussed. Biology also teaches how to use this knowledge to improve human life. To discuss this knowledge in detail, biology has been divided into two branches. one is physical biology in which theoretical concepts are discussed, and the other is applied biology in which the way of using theoretical knowledge is discussed. Actually, for learning and using knowledge easily and effectively, biology is divided into these two parts.


Physics Note

Secondary Physics

  • Physical Quantities and Their Measurements
  • Measuring Instruments


  • Rest and Motion
  • Different Types of Motion
  • Scalar and Vector quantities
  • Distance and Displacement
  • Speed and Velocity
  • Acceleration and Deceleration or Retardation
  • Equation of Motion
  • Laws of Falling Bodies


  • Inertia of Concept of Force - Newton's First Law
  • Nature of Fundamental Forces
  • Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
  • Momentum
  • Collision
  • Effect of Force on Motion: Newton's Second Law
  • Gravitational Force
  • Newton's Third Law
  • Frictional Force

Work, Power, and Energy
  • Energy
  • Different forms of Energy
  • Sources of Energy
  • Conservation and Transformation of Energy
  • Relation between mass and Energy
  • Power

State of Matter and Pressure

  • Pressure
  • Density
  • Pressure in liquids
  • Air Pressure
  • Elasticity
  • Three States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas

Effect of Heat on Matter
  • Heat and Temperature

  • Thermometric Properties of matter

  • Thermal Expansion of Matter

  • Effect of Temperature on Change of State

  • Specific Heat

  • Fundamental Principles of Calorimetry

  • Effect of Pressure on Melting Point and Boiling Point

Waves and Sound

Reflection of Light

Refraction of Light

Static Electricity

Current Electricity

  • Electric Current
  • Relationship between Potential Difference and Electricity
  • Electric Power
  • Electric Supply
  • Safe Use of Electricity
  • Design of Circuit in Residence

Magnetic Effects of Current

  • Magnet
  • Magnetic Effects of Current
  • Electromagnetic Induction

Modern Physics and Electronics

  • Radioactivity
  • Development of Electronics
  • Analog and Digital Electronics
  • Semiconductor
  • Information and Communications Technology
  • Internet and E-mail
  • Effective Use of ICT

Physics to Save Life

  • Background of Biophysics
  • Contributions of Jagadish Chandra Bose
  • Human Bodies and Machines
  • Diagnostic Instruments
  • Physics in Treatment

Higher Secondary Physics: Part-1

Physical World and Measurement

  • Nature of Physical World
  • Scope and Excitement of Physics
  • Form Concept ot Law
  • Physics and Other Fields of Knowledge
  • Space, Time and Mass
  • Fundamental and Derived Units
  • Basic Principles of Measurement
  • Importance & Development of Observations and Experiment
  • Errors in Measurement
  • Determining the Accurate Reading of Measuring Quantities


  • Vectors
  • Expression of Vector
  • Special Vectors
  • Geometrical Rules of Addition of Vectors
  • Addition and Subtraction of Vector Quantities with the help of Perpendicular Components
  • Resolution of Vector in Three Dimensional Rectangular System
  • Scalar Multiplication
  • Calculus in Physics
  • Vector Calculus
  • Application of Vector Operator


  • Inertial Frame
  • Primary Concept of Differentiation and Integration in the Explanation of Motion
  • Position-time and Velocity-time Graphs
  • Motion of Projectile
  • Laws of Falling Bodies
  • Uniform Circular Motion

Newton Mechanics

  • Intuitive concept of Force
  • Newton's Second Law of Motion
  • Relation between Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion
  • Newton's Third Law of Motion
  • Application of Newton's Laws of Motion
  • Limitations of Newton's Laws of Motion
  • Gravitational Force, Gravitational Field and Gravitational Intensity
  • Conservation of Linear Momentum 
  • Verification of Conservation of Momentum
  • Newton's Third Law of Motion and Conservation of Momentum 
  • Moment of Inertia and Angular Momentum
  • Equations Related to Angular Momentum
  • Torque
  • Relation among Torque, Moment of Inertia and Angular Acceleration 
  • Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum
  • Centripetal Force and Centrifugal Force
  • Banking of Roads & Vehicles at Turning of Roads
  • Collision
  • One Dimensional Elastic Collision and its Problem

Work, Energy, and Power

  • Universal concept of Work & Energy
  • Force, Displacement and Work
  • Constant Force and Variable Force
  • Elastic Force, Gravity of Force and Work
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Potential Energy
  • Principle of Conservation of Energy and its Application
  • Power, Force and Velocity
  • Conservative and Non-conservative Force
  • Efficiency 

Gravitation and Gravity

  • Galileo's Law of Falling Bodies
  • Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Kepler's Laws from Newton's Laws
  • Relation between Gravitational Constant and Acceleration Due to Gravity
  • Determination of the value of Gravitational Constant, G
  • Application of Gravitational Law
  • Gravitation
  • Variation in Acceleration Due to Gravity
  • Center of Gravity
  • Escape Velocity
  • Artificial Satellite and Geostationary Satellites
  • Application of Law of Gravitation 

Structural Properties of Matter

  • Intermolecular Attractive and Repulsive Force of Matter
  • Bond of Matter  
  • Intermolecular Force and Elasticity of Matter
  • Quantities Related to Elasticity
  • Hooke's Law
  • Relation between Stress and Strain
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Poison's Ratio
  • Flow of Fluid
  • Terminal Velocity
  • Viscosity and Co-efficient of Viscosity
  • Friction and Viscosity
  • Stoke's Law
  • Surface Tension and Surface Energy of Liquid
  • Angle of Contact
  • Application of Surface Tension 

Periodic Motion

  • Periodicity
  • Periodic Motion
  • Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Quantities Related to Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Energy of Particle Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Motion of Simple Pendulum 
  • Relation between Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion


  • Production of Waves
  • Waves and Energy
  • Waves
  • Traveling Waves or Progressive
  • Intensity of Waves
  • Principle of Superposition
  • Standing or Stationary Wave

Ideal Gas and Kinetic Theory of Gases

  • Ideal Gas
  • Gas Laws
  • Equation of an ideal gas
  • Equation of density of a gas
  • Universal gas Constant
  • Standard temperature and pressure(STP)
  • Absolute zero temperature
  • Fundamental postulates of gas molecules
  • Mean velocity, mean square velocity, and root mean square velocity 
  • Equation of pressure of an ideal gas according to the kinetic theory
  • Applications of kinetic theory of gases
  • Derivation of mutual relations by applying kinetic theory of gases
  • Mean free path
  • Relation between the diameter of a molecule and the mean free path
  • Dependence of mean free path
  • Law of equipartition of energy
  • Water vapour and air pressure
  • Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour Pressure
  • Dew point and relative humidity
  • Determination of dew point and relative humidity
  • Weather forecast by wet and dry bulb hygrometer

Higher Secondary Physics: Part-2


  • Principle of Measurement of Temperature
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Thermal System of Thermodynamic System
  • Internal Energy
  • Heat, Internal Energy and Work
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Reversible and Irreversible Process
  • Carnot's Cycle
  • Heat Engine
  • Refrigerator
  • Efficiency of Engine
  • Entropy and Disorder

Static Electricity

  • Coulomb's Law and Theory of Field
  • Electric Force, Electric Field Intensity, and Electric Potential of a Point Charge
  • Equipotential Surface
  • Electric Dipole
  • Quantization of Charge and Conservation of Charge
  • Insulator and Dielectric Medium
  • Capacitor and Capacity
  • Derivation of Gauss's Law from
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Application of Gaussian Law to Determine Electric Field Intensity
  • Limitation of Coulomb's Law

Current Electricity

  • Effect of Temperature on Resistance
  • Joule's Law of Thermal Effect
  • Internal Resistance of a Cell and Electromotive Force
  • Series and Parallel Combinations of Cells
  • Kirchhoff's Law
  • Application of Shunt

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

  • Oersted's Concepts of Magnetic Field
  • Biot-Savart's Law
  • Ampere's Law
  • Moving Charge
  • Hall Effect
  • Conducting Wire and Force of Magnetic Field
  • The spin of Electron around its Own Axis
  • Electron Spin and Magnetic Field
  • Earth's Magnetism and its Magnetic Elements
  • Magnetism (Para, Dia, Fero, Ferri, Antifero) Magnetic Domain
  • Magnetic Domain
  • Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet
  • Uses of Temporary Magnet and Permanent Magnet

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Generating Electricity with Magnet
  • Induced Electromotive Force
  • Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction
  • Lenz's Law
  • Lenz's Law and Conservation of Energy
  • Self-Induction and Mutual Induction
  • Generation of Alternating Current
  • Root Mean Square Value, Peak Value, and Current

Geometrical Optics

  • Fermat's Principle
  • Lens Maker's Equation
  • Microscope
  • Telescope
  • Reflecting Telescope
  • Refracting Telescope
  • Refraction and Dispersion of Light Through Prism

Physical Optics

  • Electromagnetic Wave
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Wave Front
  • Huygen's Principle
  • Interference of Light
  • Diffraction of Light
  • Polarization of Light

Introduction to Modern Physics

  • Concepts of Modern Physics
  • Inertial and Non Inertial Frame of Reference
  • Michaelson-Morley Experiment
  • Einstein's Theory Experiment
  • Galilean and Lorentz Transformation
  • Time Dilation, Length Contraction, and Mass Variation According to the Theory of Relativity
  • Mass Energy Relation
  • Fundamental Forces
  • Application of Theory of Relativity in Space Travel
  • Planck's Black Body Radiation
  • X-Ray
  • Photo Electric Effect
  • De Broglie's Waves
  • Compton Effect
  • Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

  • Development of Concepts of Atomic Structure
  • Rutherford's Alpha Particle Experiment
  • Rutherford's Atom Model
  • Limitations of Rutherford's Model
  • Bohr's Atom Model
  • Composition of Nucleus
  • Important Phenomena of Nuclear Physics
  • Radioactivity
  • Decay
  • Half-Life
  • Average Life
  • Mass defect
  • Binding energy
  • Nuclear reaction
  • Chain reaction
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Nuclear fission

Semiconductor and Electronics

  • Band Theory
  • Conductor, Non-Conductor, and Semiconductor on the Basis of Band Theory
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor
  • Concept of Electron and Hole
  • p-type and n-type Semiconductor
  • Functions of Junction Diode
  • Rectification
  • Junction Transistor (p-n-p), n-p-n)
  • Use of Transistor
  • Number System
  • Binary Operation
  • Logic Gate


  • The Origin of the Universe or Cosmology
  • The fate of the Universe on the Basis of Physics
  • Main Objects of the Universe and Phenomenon 
  • Main Principle
  • Radio Telescope
  • Optical Telescope
  • Gamma-ray and x-ray
  • Artificial Satellite


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