# Physics

# Physics Note

##
Higher Secondary Physics: Part-1

## Physical World and Measurement

- Nature of Physical World
- Scope and Excitement of Physics
- Form Concept ot Law
- Physics and Other Fields of Knowledge
- Space, Time and Mass
- Fundamental and Derived Units
- Basic Principles of Measurement
- Importance & Development of Observations and Experiment
- Errors in Measurement
- Determining the Accurate Reading of Measuring Quantities

## Vectors

- Vectors
- Expression of Vector
- Special Vectors
- Geometrical Rules of Addition of Vectors
- Addition and Subtraction of Vector Quantities with the help of Perpendicular Components
- Resolution of Vector in Three Dimensional Rectangular System
- Scalar Multiplication
- Calculus in Physics
- Vector Calculus
- Application of Vector Operator

## Kinematics

- Inertial Frame
- Primary Concept of Differentiation and Integration in the Explanation of Motion
- Position-time and Velocity-time Graphs
- Motion of Projectile
- Laws of Falling Bodies
- Uniform Circular Motion

## Newton Mechanics

- Intuitive concept of Force
- Newton's Second Law of Motion
- Relation between Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion
- Newton's Third Law of Motion
- Application of Newton's Laws of Motion
- Limitations of Newton's Laws of Motion
- Gravitational Force, Gravitational Field and Gravitational Intensity
- Conservation of Linear Momentum
- Verification of Conservation of Momentum
- Newton's Third Law of Motion and Conservation of Momentum
- Moment of Inertia and Angular Momentum
- Equations Related to Angular Momentum
- Torque
- Relation among Torque, Moment of Inertia and Angular Acceleration
- Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Centripetal Force and Centrifugal Force
- Banking of Roads & Vehicles at Turning of Roads
- Collision
- One Dimensional Elastic Collision and its Problem

## Work, Energy, and Power

- Universal concept of Work & Energy
- Force, Displacement and Work
- Constant Force and Variable Force
- Elastic Force, Gravity of Force and Work
- Kinetic Energy
- Potential Energy
- Principle of Conservation of Energy and its Application
- Power, Force and Velocity
- Conservative and Non-conservative Force
- Efficiency

## Gravitation and Gravity

- Galileo's Law of Falling Bodies
- Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
- Kepler's Laws from Newton's Laws
- Relation between Gravitational Constant and Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Determination of the value of Gravitational Constant, G
- Application of Gravitational Law
- Gravitation
- Variation in Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Center of Gravity
- Escape Velocity
- Artificial Satellite and Geostationary Satellites
- Application of Law of Gravitation

## Structural Properties of Matter

- Intermolecular Attractive and Repulsive Force of Matter
- Bond of Matter
- Intermolecular Force and Elasticity of Matter
- Quantities Related to Elasticity
- Hooke's Law
- Relation between Stress and Strain
- Modulus of Elasticity
- Poison's Ratio
- Flow of Fluid
- Terminal Velocity
- Viscosity and Co-efficient of Viscosity
- Friction and Viscosity
- Stoke's Law
- Surface Tension and Surface Energy of Liquid
- Angle of Contact
- Application of Surface Tension

## Periodic Motion

- Periodicity
- Periodic Motion
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Quantities Related to Simple Harmonic Motion
- Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion
- Energy of Particle Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
- Motion of Simple Pendulum
- Relation between Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion

## Waves

- Production of Waves
- Waves and Energy
- Waves
- Traveling Waves or Progressive
- Intensity of Waves
- Principle of Superposition
- Standing or Stationary Wave

##
**Ideal Gas and Kinetic Theory of Gases**

- Ideal Gas
- Gas Laws
- Equation of an ideal gas
- Equation of density of a gas
- Universal gas Constant
- Standard temperature and pressure(STP)
- Absolute zero temperature
- Fundamental postulates of gas molecules
- Mean velocity, mean square velocity, and root mean square velocity
- Equation of pressure of an ideal gas according to the kinetic theory
- Applications of kinetic theory of gases
- Derivation of mutual relations by applying kinetic theory of gases
- Mean free path
- Relation between the diameter of a molecule and the mean free path
- Dependence of mean free path
- Law of equipartition of energy
- Water vapour and air pressure
- Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour Pressure
- Dew point and relative humidity
- Determination of dew point and relative humidity
- Weather forecast by wet and dry bulb hygrometer

##

Higher Secondary Physics: Part-2

## Thermodynamics

- Principle of Measurement of Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermal System of Thermodynamic System
- Internal Energy
- Heat, Internal Energy and Work
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Reversible and Irreversible Process
- Carnot's Cycle
- Heat Engine
- Refrigerator
- Efficiency of Engine
- Entropy and Disorder

## Static Electricity

- Coulomb's Law and Theory of Field
- Electric Force, Electric Field Intensity, and Electric Potential of a Point Charge
- Equipotential Surface
- Electric Dipole
- Quantization of Charge and Conservation of Charge
- Insulator and Dielectric Medium
- Capacitor and Capacity
- Derivation of Gauss's Law from
- Coulomb's Law
- Application of Gaussian Law to Determine Electric Field Intensity
- Limitation of Coulomb's Law

## Current Electricity

- Effect of Temperature on Resistance
- Joule's Law of Thermal Effect
- Internal Resistance of a Cell and Electromotive Force
- Series and Parallel Combinations of Cells
- Kirchhoff's Law
- Application of Shunt

## Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

- Oersted's Concepts of Magnetic Field
- Biot-Savart's Law
- Ampere's Law
- Moving Charge
- Hall Effect
- Conducting Wire and Force of Magnetic Field
- The spin of Electron around its Own Axis
- Electron Spin and Magnetic Field
- Earth's Magnetism and its Magnetic Elements
- Magnetism (Para, Dia, Fero, Ferri, Antifero) Magnetic Domain
- Magnetic Domain
- Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet
- Uses of Temporary Magnet and Permanent Magnet

## Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

- Electromagnetic Induction
- Generating Electricity with Magnet
- Induced Electromotive Force
- Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction
- Lenz's Law
- Lenz's Law and Conservation of Energy
- Self-Induction and Mutual Induction
- Generation of Alternating Current
- Root Mean Square Value, Peak Value, and Current

## Geometrical Optics

- Fermat's Principle
- Lens Maker's Equation
- Microscope
- Telescope
- Reflecting Telescope
- Refracting Telescope
- Refraction and Dispersion of Light Through Prism

## Physical Optics

- Electromagnetic Wave
- Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Wave Front
- Huygen's Principle
- Interference of Light
- Diffraction of Light
- Polarization of Light

## Introduction to Modern Physics

- Concepts of Modern Physics
- Inertial and Non Inertial Frame of Reference
- Michaelson-Morley Experiment
- Einstein's Theory Experiment
- Galilean and Lorentz Transformation
- Time Dilation, Length Contraction, and Mass Variation According to the Theory of Relativity
- Mass Energy Relation
- Fundamental Forces
- Application of Theory of Relativity in Space Travel
- Planck's Black Body Radiation
- X-Ray
- Photo Electric Effect
- De Broglie's Waves
- Compton Effect
- Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

## Atomic Model and Nuclear Physics

- Development of Concepts of Atomic Structure
- Rutherford's Alpha Particle Experiment
- Rutherford's Atom Model
- Limitations of Rutherford's Model
- Bohr's Atom Model
- Composition of Nucleus
- Important Phenomena of Nuclear Physics
- Radioactivity
- Decay
- Half-Life
- Average Life
- Mass defect
- Binding energy
- Nuclear reaction
- Chain reaction
- Nuclear fusion
- Nuclear fission

## Semiconductor and Electronics

- Band Theory
- Conductor, Non-Conductor, and Semiconductor on the Basis of Band Theory
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor
- Concept of Electron and Hole
- p-type and n-type Semiconductor
- Functions of Junction Diode
- Rectification
- Junction Transistor (p-n-p), n-p-n)
- Use of Transistor
- Number System
- Binary Operation
- Logic Gate