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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism Notes for Class 11 - 12

Ampere's Law

The line integral of the magnetic field in a continuous closed path or loop is µ₀ times the total electric current passed in the region enclosed by the path.


When 1 coulomb of charge moves at a velocity of 1 ms-1 perpendicularly to the direction of a magnetic field experiencing 1 N of force, the magnetic of that magnetic field is called 1 tesla (T).

Hall effect and Hall voltage

When an electric conductor is set up perpendicularly at a magnetic field, a potential difference develops perpendicular to both electric current and magnetic field. This is Hall effect and the produced potential difference is called voltage or Hall voltage.

Magnetic Axis

An imaginary line joining the two poles of terrestrial magnet is called magnetic axis.

Magnetic Middle Plain

The imaginary plain perpendicular to the magnetic axis at midpoint is called magnetic middle plain.

Geographical axis

An imaginary line joining the two geographical poles is called geographical axis.

Geographical middle plain

An imaginary perpendicular plain at the midpoint of the geographical axis is called geographical middle plain.

Horizontal component of terrestrial magnetic field 

The component of terrestrial magnetic field at any point along the horizontal line is called horizontal component (H) at the particular point of that field.


From the H-I graph it is observed that intensity of magnetization (I) is always lower than intensity (H). This phenomenon is called hysteresis.


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