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Learning Outcomes  ๐Ÿ‘‰ What is biodiversity  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Origin of biodiversity  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Nature of biodiversity  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Interrelationships of organisms  ๐Ÿ‘‰ How to measure biodiversity  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Biodiversity of Bangladesh  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Risks and remedies of biodiversity  What is Biodiversity? The term biodiversity describes the great variety of life on Earth. Biodiversity refers to the variety of living things, including plants, animals, and microorganisms. We don't know for sure exactly how many different organisms there are on Earth. However, scientists estimate that there are about 8-14 million (80 to 140 lakh) different species of organisms on this Earth. Some believe that the number is higher. But whatever the number, most of these organisms are unknown to us. Only 1.2 million (12 lakh) species have been identified and described so far, most of which are insects. This means that billions of other organisms are still mysterious and unknown to us. Origin of Biodiversity The unique characteristics of all sp

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism Notes for Class 11 - 12

Ampere's Law

The line integral of the magnetic field in a continuous closed path or loop is ยต₀ times the total electric current passed in the region enclosed by the path.


When 1 coulomb of charge moves at a velocity of 1 ms-1 perpendicularly to the direction of a magnetic field experiencing 1 N of force, the magnetic of that magnetic field is called 1 tesla (T).

Hall effect and Hall voltage

When an electric conductor is set up perpendicularly at a magnetic field, a potential difference develops perpendicular to both electric current and magnetic field. This is the Hall effect and the produced potential difference is called voltage or Hall voltage.

Magnetic Axis

An imaginary line joining the two poles of a terrestrial magnet is called the magnetic axis.

Magnetic Middle Plain

The imaginary plane perpendicular to the magnetic axis at the midpoint is called the magnetic middle plane.

Geographical axis

An imaginary line joining the two geographical poles is called the geographical axis.

Geographical middle plain

An imaginary perpendicular plain at the midpoint of the geographical axis is called the geographical middle plain.

The horizontal component of the terrestrial magnetic field 

The component of the terrestrial magnetic field at any point along the horizontal line is called the horizontal component (H) at the particular point of that field.


From the H-I graph, it is observed that the intensity of magnetization (I) is always lower than the intensity (H). This phenomenon is called hysteresis.


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