### Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

## Introduction to Modern Physics for Class 11 -12

Frame of Reference

The coordinate system in a three dimensional space with respect to which we can describe the motion of an object is called frame of reference.

Inertial Frame of Reference

The frame of references moving with constant velocity to each other in which Newton's law of motion can be applied are called inertial frame of reference.

Galilean Transformation

Taking time as absolute and ignoring postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations between two sets of coordinates of two fame of references moving with velocity constant relative to each other and time are called Galilean transformation.

Lorentz Transformation

Taking time as non absolute and applying postulates of special theory of relativity, the equations obtained which establish relations two sets of coordinates two frames of reference moving with constant velocity relative to each other and time are called Lorentz transformation.

Time Dilation

Time duration of an event at motion with respect to an observer is greater than the time duration of the same event at rest. This is called time dilation.

Length contraction

With respect to an observer, the length of an object at motion seems shorter than that the same object at rest. This effect is called length contraction.

Photo Electric Effect

If light rays of high frequency incident on a metal plate, electrons emit. This effect is called photo electric effect.

Compton Effect

Wavelength of scattered radiation of monochromatic x-ray changes due to scattering. This effect is called Compton Effect.