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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Current Electricity

Current Electricity Notes for Class 11 - 12


The property of a conductor which opposes the flow of current is called resistance of that conductor.


The amount of electrical energy spent in one hour by a device having a power of 1 kilowatt is called a kilowatt-hour (kWh).

Electrical cell

The device by means of which electric energy is produced from chemical energy and the flow of current is kept ongoing is called as electrical cell.

Electromotive force

The work done to bring one unit of charge along with electric cell from one point to that point by rotating it through the whole circuit, i.e. the amount of energy supplied by the electric cell to keep the flow in motion is called electromotive force of that cell.


A very small resistance which is used in devices by connecting  to it in parallel combination so that excess current can pass through it in order to protect the electrical device from damage due to excess current flow is called shunt.


The device by means of which electromotive force of a cell and the potential difference between any two points of an electrical circuit can be determined through potential drop system is called potentiometer.

Meter Bridge

The device to which a one-meter long wire having uniform cross-sectional resistance are connected in order to determine the resistance of the components of the wire, i.e specific resistance of the wire by Wheatstone's bridge principle is called meter bridge.

Post Office Box

The resistance box whose resistances can be considered as the three arms of a wheatstone bridge and by bears of whose fourth arm the general value of an unknown resistance can be determined through Wheatstone's bridge principle is called Post Office Box.

Two Laws of Kirchhoff

First law: In an electric circuit, the algebraic sum of current into a junction is zero. 

Second law: In any closed circuit, the algebraic sun of the products of current and resistance of each part of the circuit is equal to the total electromotive force in the circuit.


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