Charge is the distinct property of fundamental particles that electrifies an object.
Types of charge
There are two types of charges. They are a) positive charge and b) negative charge.
Properties of Charge
⇒Like charges repeal each other.
⇒Unlike charges attract each other.
The electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force acts the line joining the two charges and its value depends on the nature of the medium.
Features of Coulomb's law
1) Coulomb's law is applicable mainly to point charge.
2) It is applicable to both attraction and repulsion force.
3) It is a long range force. It is not applicable to a distance less than 10-5m.
4) It is dependent on the nature of medium. In vacuum or air, Coulomb force is maximum.
5) Coulomb's force is a conserving force.
6) Relative velocity of charges is zero.
7) Coulomb's force follows the inverse square law.
8) Coulomb's force is a central force because it acts along line joining two charges.
The area in which there is the effect of a charge is called electric field.
Intensity of electric field
If a positive unit charge is placed inside an electric field, the force acting on it is called intensity of electric field.
If all the points on a plane have the same potential, the plane is called an equipotential plane.
The product of distance between two charges and magnitude of any of two charges is called dipole moment.
Quantization of charge
Atom and such objects can have charge which is equal to the integral multiple of minimum charges. This is called quantization of charge.
Ratio of acting forces between two charges separated by a distance in vaccum and acting forces between the two charges at the same distance in any other medium is constant. This constant is called dielectric constant.
The amount of charge required to increase the potential of any conductor by 1 V is called capacitance of that conductor.
If two or more capacitors of a combination are replaced with one capacitor so that the amount of charge and potential do not change, the capacitance of the single capacitor is called equivalent capacitance.
Are static electricity and magnetism similar?
Are static electricity charges?
What are static electricity?
Where are static electricity used?
How are static electricity and magnetism different?
What are static electricity made of?
What are examples of static electricity?
What are the dangers of static electricity?
What are the similarities between static and current electricity?