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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Static Electricity

Static Electricity Notes for Class 11 - 12

Coulomb's Law

The electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force acts the line joining the two charges and its value depends on the nature of the medium.

Electric field

The area in which there is the effect of a charge is called electric field.

Intensity of electric field

If a positive unit charge is placed inside an electric field, the force acting on it is called intensity of electric field.

Equipotential plane

If all the points on a plane have the same potential, the plane is called an equipotential plane.

Dipole moment

The product of distance between two charges and magnitude of any of two charges is called dipole moment.

Quantization of charge

Atom and such objects can have charge which is equal to the integral multiple of minimum charges. This is called quantization of charge.

Dielectric constant

Ratio of acting forces between two charges separated by a distance in vaccum and acting forces between the two charges at the same distance in any other medium is constant. This constant is called dielectric constant.


The amount of charge required to increase the potential of any conductor by 1 V is called capacitance of that conductor.

Equivalent capacitance

If two or more capacitors of a combination are replaced with one capacitor so that the amount of charge and potential do not change, the capacitance of the single capacitor is called equivalent capacitance.


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