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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

What is biological coin?

What is a biological coin?


ATP is called the energy coin of the cell because it can store energy and can supply that energy to the cell's demand.

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is known as 'biological currency' or energy coin, where energy is stored and can be used whenever the cell demands it. 

Energy is released from the photosynthesis process to generate foods through respiration. Usually, this energy is stored within ATP in the bond of the terminal phosphate group. When this bond is broken, energy is released, which can be used in different physiochemical reactions.

The basic mechanism of production and utilization of energy in the body of a living organism is its bio-energy. This is not very different from the definition of energy given in physics.

The energy we get from making and breaking chemical bonds in the molecules found in biological organisms is called by this name.

Living organisms continuously collect energy from the environment, transform them one from one form into another, sometimes preserve them, and release them again into the environment.


Adenine is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA. It is a nitrogen base. Adenosine is composed of one molecule of adenine attached to a pentose (with five carbon) ribose sugar molecule. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP), Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), or Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Energy needs to be supplied from an outside source for the process of adding phosphate and this is called phosphorylation.

In the reverse process, energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. This chemical reaction is known as dephosphorylation. Note here that 7.3 kilocalories (approx. 30.55 kilojoules) are captured and remain stored in the phosphate group of each mole of ATP.

Two organelles of a living cell collect energy from the environment and transform them into a form usable for the host cell. These two organelles are the mitochondria and the plastid. Both have a set of special complexes of molecules called Electron Transport System whose function is to store nutrients (such as glucose) or any transitional energy as the bonding force of the phosphate group in ATP.

All physiological functions, from muscle contraction to sensitivity, swallowing to digesting food, respiration to speaking, shouting to smiling, and, physical growth to reproduction, controlling body temperature to maintain natural cell volume: everything is completed by energy released from the breaking down of the chemical bond of ATP. The food we eat is oxidized, and the energy released from this oxidization is used to create ATP through phosphorylation. It breaks down when energy is needed and combines by taking energy from food. This is like a rechargeable battery. ATP stores energy and supplies energy for other reactions when necessary. ATP is therefore called a Biological coin or energy coin.

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