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Why is biology divided into the physical and applied branches?

Why is biology divided into the physical and applied branches? In biology, living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, reproduction, classification, origin, and evolution are discussed. Biology also teaches how to use this knowledge to improve human life. To discuss this knowledge in detail, biology has been divided into two branches. one is physical biology in which theoretical concepts are discussed, and the other is applied biology in which the way of using theoretical knowledge is discussed. Actually, for learning and using knowledge easily and effectively, biology is divided into these two parts.

What is biological coin?

What is a biological coin?


ATP is called the energy coin of the cell because it can store energy and can supply that energy to the cell's demand.

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is known as 'biological currency' or energy coin, where energy is stored and can be used whenever the cell demands it. 

Energy is released from the photosynthesis process to generate foods through respiration. Usually, this energy is stored within ATP in the bond of the terminal phosphate group. When this bond is broken, energy is released, which can be used in different physiochemical reactions.

The basic mechanism of production and utilization of energy in the body of a living organism is its bio-energy. This is not very different from the definition of energy given in physics.

The energy we get from making and breaking chemical bonds in the molecules found in biological organisms is called by this name.

Living organisms continuously collect energy from the environment, transform them one from one form into another, sometimes preserve them, and release them again into the environment.


Adenine is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA. It is a nitrogen base. Adenosine is composed of one molecule of adenine attached to a pentose (with five carbon) ribose sugar molecule. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP), Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), or Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Energy needs to be supplied from an outside source for the process of adding phosphate and this is called phosphorylation.

In the reverse process, energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. This chemical reaction is known as dephosphorylation. Note here that 7.3 kilocalories (approx. 30.55 kilojoules) are captured and remain stored in the phosphate group of each mole of ATP.

Two organelles of a living cell collect energy from the environment and transform them into a form usable for the host cell. These two organelles are the mitochondria and the plastid. Both have a set of special complexes of molecules called Electron Transport System whose function is to store nutrients (such as glucose) or any transitional energy as the bonding force of the phosphate group in ATP.

All physiological functions, from muscle contraction to sensitivity, swallowing to digesting food, respiration to speaking, shouting to smiling, and, physical growth to reproduction, controlling body temperature to maintain natural cell volume: everything is completed by energy released from the breaking down of the chemical bond of ATP. The food we eat is oxidized, and the energy released from this oxidization is used to create ATP through phosphorylation. It breaks down when energy is needed and combines by taking energy from food. This is like a rechargeable battery. ATP stores energy and supplies energy for other reactions when necessary. ATP is therefore called a Biological coin or energy coin.

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