State and Government | Forms of State | State based on Economic System | State based on the Source of Power

State and Government

Many a time, the terms 'state' and 'government' are synonymously used. But there are fundamental differences between these two. A state is a complete and permanent institution. It possesses sovereignty or absolute power. Government is one of the four elements (population, territory, government and sovereignty) of a state. Although all states are formed with the same elements, all states and governments are not the same. With the change of time, the nature of government and state may also change.

Forms of State

There are different forms of states in the world. In the following, various forms of state are given below:

1) Based on economy

  • Capitalist State
  • Socialist State

2) Based on Inheritance Formula

  • Monarchy
    • Constitutional Monarchy
    • Absolute Monarchy

3) Based on source of power

  • Democratic State
  • Dictatorial State

4) Based on Aims

  • Welfare State

5) Based on the principle of distribution of power

  •  Unitary State
  • Federal State

State based on Economic System

Based on economic system, states are classified into capitalist and socialist states.

Capitalist State: In the capitalist state, private ownership of property is recognized. In this form of state, capital, labour and management are vested in private ownership. The government does not have control over these factors. The production and supply system is administered by open competition. In this form of state, citizens are free to own assets and consume them. Most of the states in the present world are capitalist.

Socialist State: Socialist states are the states which do not recognize private ownership of property. In this kind of state, means of production are owned by the states. Steps are for the management of production and distribution under the state's supervision. This is opposed to capitalism. Socialism does not recognize individualism. There exists only one party in this type of state. The state controls the mass media. There is no opportunity for the expression of opposition views. For example, China and Cuba are socialist states.

State based on the Source of Power

Based on power, states are classified into two - democratic and dictatorial states.

Democratic State: In a democratic state, the power to rule is vested in all members of the state or the hands of the people. People participate in this form of governance, and they form this government. This is a form of governance that is run for the welfare of the people by direct participation of the people. In a democratic state, people enjoy the right to express an opinion and to criticize the government. In this form of state, the government is changed through elections held in a constitutional way. In a democratic state, there is more than one political party. This form of  governance ensures interests for all and recognizes citizens, rights and the rule of law. Bangladesh, India, the United States, UK, etc. are democratic states.

Dictatorial State System: Dictatorship is an arbitrary system of governance. In this form of state, the power of government lies not in the hands of the people but an arbitrary ruler. Here, the leader possesses all powers. He is said to be a director. The dictatorial rule is assisted by ministers or advisors. But they abide by the orders of the ruler. The dictator's orders are laws. In this system, rulers are accountable to none. Only one political party exists. The chief of the party holds the position of the head of the government. The party is run according to his wish and the party comprises of his blind followers.

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