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What is thermometry?

Thermometry The branch of heat relating to the measurement of the temperature of a body is called thermometry. The thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of a body. The essential requisites of a thermometer are given as under:  1) Construction, 2) Calibration, and 3) Sensitiveness. For the construction of a thermometer, the proper choice of a substance, whose physical property varies uniformly with rising in temperature, is essential. 1) Construction The physical property of a substance plays an important role in the construction of a thermometer. In a mercury thermometer, the principle of expansion of mercury with rising temperature is used. The platinum resistance thermometer is based on the principle of the change in resistance with a change in temperature. The gas thermometer is based on the principle of change in volume or pressure with a change in temperature. 2) Calibration  When a thermometer is constructed, it should be properly calibrated. The standa

Objectives of Physical Education

Objectives of Physical Education


Generally, we do not the difference between an aim and an objective in most cases. We often use them interchangeably. But these two terms are not synonymous. There are differences between them. The aim is the final goal whereas an objective is a short and specific step towards the goal. For example, in the case of your climbing the stairs to reach the roof, the roof is the aim and every stem of the stairs is an objective. An aim exists in human imagination which can not be depicted in reality. But an objective is real. Man can achieve the objective and even it is possible to measure. Physical educationists have mentioned several interims measures to attain the aims. These measures are known as the objectives of physical education. According to Williams, the aim of physical education is the all-around development of personality through the development of physical, social, and other areas of an individual. Book Walters states that the aim of physical education is the optimum development of the physically, socially, and mentally integrated and adjusted individual. This aim can be achieved through participation in selected sports, rhythmic, and gymnastic activities conducted according to social and hygienic standards. Though experts have agreed upon some objectives, there are different opinions about some other objectives as well. From the opinions of the majority of experts, we can identify common objectives of physical education. Considering the opinions of various thinkers, the objectives of physical education can be divided into four groups.

 They are -

1) Physical fitness

2) Mental development

3) Character development

4) Social adjustment

1. Physical fitness

  • To play well, maintaining the rules and regulations of games and sports
  • To achieve specific objectives through har work
  • To improve human capacity through neuro-muscular coordination\
  • To ensure balanced development of body and mind
  • To attain physical strength maintaining good health
  • To develop tolerance and self-confidence

2. Mental development

  • To develop quick thinking ability
  • To acquire knowledge about ethics & morality
  • To be motivated for service and self-sacrifice
  • To foster friendly and competitive attitudes among different teams

3. Character developments

  • To develop a sense of obedience and morality
  • To develop respect for law through games and sports
  • To develop sportsmanlike and friendly attitudes
  • To show respect for opponents
  • To help control emotions and become self-disciplined

4. Social adjustment

  • To acquire leadership qualities
  • To know constructive ways of passing leisure time
  • To develop the ability to participate in various cultural programs
  • To maintain a friendly relationship with others and to participate in welfare activities

From the opinions of the physical educationists as mentioned above, it can be said that the objectives of physical education are very similar to that of general education. It also focuses on optimum development of the personality of individuals and also on helping them master the art of games and sports through systematic guidance and participation in sports.

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