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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

Concept of Biology

Concept of Biology

In nature, we generally find two types of objects: non-living things and living organisms.

The characteristics of non-living things are usually discussed in Physics and Chemistry. Biology is the branch of scientific knowledge concerning the life and characteristics of organisms. 

But it is really difficult to find the very faint line of difference between living and non-living. In fact, physics and chemistry embody the principles of fundamentals of life, even non-living. 

So, in order to understand living organisms, it is necessary to know about the physical sciences i.e. physics and chemistry. But it is wrong to think that it is not necessary to study biology if we have knowledge of physical sciences. Rather, life may be considered a complex combination of many non-living things in which some new characteristics occur.

For example, the properties of water do not resemble that of hydrogen and oxygen, though it is made up of these two elements. So, although living organisms are constituted of a specific combination of non-living things, new properties originate in them that do not always resemble that of their non-living components.

Biology is one of the fundamental branches of science. The term 'biology' is derived from the Greek words, 'bios' meaning life and 'logos' meaning knowledge. As biology plays an important role in different regions including Greece, Egypt, Middle East, India, and China. However, this practice cannot be considered as a science in terms of modern science but it was necessary then to flourish this branch of knowledge.

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