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What is E-commerce?

What is E-commerce? E-commerce (Electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services or transmitting funds or data over an electronic network, primarily the internet. These business transactions occur either business to business, business to consumer, consumer to consumer, or consumer to business. This thesis is concerned with the impact of electronic commerce on international tax laws, specifically source-based taxation. Before looking specifically at the arguments and propositions to be advanced by the thesis, it is both instructive and necessary, to begin with, a discussion of what is meant by ‘electronic commerce’. Discussions relating to electronic commerce normally begin with a pronouncement that it represents a fundamental and revolutionary development in communications that is likely to dramatically change the way business is conducted. This is usually followed by highly variable, speculative, and often mind-numbing estimates of the expected growth of th

Contributions of Jagadish Chandra Bose

Contributions of Jagadish Chandra Bose


Acharya Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was a renowned physicist, as well as a successful biologist. He was the first internationally recognized scientist of this subcontinent. The forefathers of Jagadishchandra Bose lived at the village of Rarikhal of Bikrampur in Dhaka district. He was born in 1858 in Mymensingh. His father, Bhagaban Chandra Bose, was a deputy magistrate of the Faridpur district.

His education started in a rural school in Faridpur. Later he completed his studies at Hare School and Saint Xavier School and College in Kolkata. After passing his B.A. in 1880, he went to England, and from 1880 - 1884 he completed his honors with BA in Physics from Cambridge University and then acquired a B.Sc. degree from London University. Returning to his motherland in 1885, he became a professor of physics in Presidency College. At that time was not enough scopes for research in that colleges, but he continued his research anyway. He was always busy during the day. So, he carried on his research at night.

He conducted a lot of research on how to send radio signals without electric wires. In 1895, for the first time, he sent a wireless radio signal to distant places and demonstrated this publicity. He has great contributions to microwave research; he was the first to reduce the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave to the order of millimeters (nearly 5 mm). Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose used semiconductor junctions to direct radio signals. Instead of patenting this invention and obtaining commercial benefits from it, he opened it for all.

In later years, Jagadish Chandra Bose discovered many important aspects of plant physiology. Among those, the invention of the Cresco graph to record the growth of plants, detecting very minor movements, and matters of responding to various stimuli are worth mentioning. Earlier it was assumed that response to stimuli was a chemical process. He showed that it was actually electrical in nature.

In 1917 he established the Bose Biggan Mandir in Kolkata for research on plant physiology. The writings of Jagadish Chandra Bose in Bengali were compiled in a book named 'Obyakto'. A significant book of his is 'Response in the living and nonliving.' On 23 November 1937, scholar Jagadish Chandra Bose breathed his last.

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