Total Internal Reflection

At the interface of two media, the incident light beam is separated into
two: reflected and refracted. If light falls with the angle on the surface
of the interface, which differs from straight then at the interface light
changes its direction. It is called refraction of light.

Of the two media in which light propagated at different velocity that in
which the light velocity is lower and refraction index, denoted by n is
grater will be called optically denser media. For examples glass (n =
1.5 to 1.7) is optically denser then water (n = 1.33).

When light propagates from a denser media to light media, then the
angle of incidence α1 approaches a certain value α crit, the angle of
refraction tends to the right angle α0 →π/2, and the intensity of the
refraction beam tends to zero at a very fast rate. At all angles of
incidence excreting αcr which is called the critical angle and there will
be no refracted beam. In this case light will be totally reflected from
the interface as if it were an ideal mirror. This phenomenon is called
total internal reflection or simply total reflection.

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