What is electric Charge?

Particles that exert electric forces are said to have electric charge particles that do not exert electric forces are said to have no electric charge. Thus, electric charge is thought of as the source of electric
force, just as mass is the source of gravitational force. Electrons and protons have an electric charge, but neutrons have no electric charge. 

Since the electron-proton force, the electron-electron force, and the proton-proton force all have the same magnitudes (for a given distance), the strengths of the sources on electrons and protons are of equal magnitudes; that is, their electric charges are of equal magnitudes. For the mathematical formulation of the law of electric force, we assign a positive charge to the proton and a negative charge (of equal magnitude) to the electron. We designate these charges of the proton and the electron by +e and -e, respectively Table summarizes these values of the charges.

Table: Electric charges Proton, Electron and Neutron


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