Dictatorial State System | Demerits of a Dictatorial State | State-based on the principles of the distribution of power | State based Objectives

Dictatorial State System

Directorship is an arbitrary system of governance. In this form of state, the power of government lies not in the hands of the people but in the arbitrary rulers. Here, the leader possesses all powers. He is said to be a dictator. The dictatorial rule is assisted by ministers or advisors. But they abide by the orders of the ruler. The dictator's orders are laws. In this system, rulers are accountable to none. Only one political party exists. The chief of the party holds the position of the head of the government. The party is run according to his wish and the party comprises of his blind followers.

In a dictatorship, mass media (radio, television, newspapers, etc.) are controlled by the leader and his party. These are not allowed to be used neutrally. Instead, these are only used to praise the government. In this form of government, the legislature and judiciary do not have freedom. Law-making and judicial functions are performed according to the wish of the dictator.

One nation, one country and one leader, are the ideals of dictatorship. The main principle of a dictatorial state is that everything is for the state and nothing is beyond or against it.

Demerits of a Dictatorial State

Dictatorship is an arbitrary system. The following are its defects:

Anti-democratic: Dictatorship is anti-democratic. It does not recognize individual liberty, which is the essence of democracy. It violates fundamental rights. Thus it hampers personality development.

Arbitrary rule: Dictatorship establishes an arbitrary rule. Because dictators are not accountable to any authority, their words are laws, which leave no room for an individual's freedom of thought and exchange of free ideas. Dictatorship is a system of arbitrary governance.

An obstacle to creating leadership and political consciousness: One man is dominant in this form of governance, leaving no room for alternative leadership development. As people cannot participate in such governance, so political consciousness is not created.

Possibility of revolution: The fear of revolution arises from the lack of participation in this system of dictatorial governance. A dictatorship cannot last long due to internal opposition and mass uprising against this form of government.

Against World Peace: Dictatorship holds and fosters aggressive nationalism. Power and greed for power install a war-mongering mentality into the dictator. Hitler created havoc all over the world by having such a war-mongering mentality.

In a dictatorial state, an individual is sacrificed at the altar of the state. Here, individuals are for the state. The state is not for individuals. Therefore, no state supports dictatorship in the present world.

State-based on the principles of the distribution of power

Based on the distribution of power principle, states can be classified into two categories: Unitary state and Federal state.

Unitary state

In a unitary state, all powers are vested in the central government. Thus the country is run from the centre. For the benefit of governance, the country is divided into different provinces and regions and some powers are transferred to their hands. But the central government, if needed, could retain such powers. In this form of government, provincial or regional governments act as agents of the central government and run governance according to the central government's directives. Bangladesh and the UK are examples of unitary states.

Federal State

In this state system, more than one region or province merges and creates a state. This is called federal state.

For the convenience of the central government's rule, power is distributed between the centre and province or region through the constitution. In a federal state, small states stay side by side to form a large state. The state becomes more robust. 

In addition, the federal government mobilizes resources from its smaller states.  Thus a large economy is created. This large economy can contribute to the development of the state. Federal states in the world are more or less developed. Our neighbouring country India is a federation.

State-based on the inheritance

In many states, heads of the state assume power through inheritance. These kinds of states are called monarchies. In the monarchy, the son or daughter of the King becomes either King or Queen. There are two types of monarchy, absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy.

Absolute Monarchy: In an absolute monarchy, King or Queen assumes absolute power. In this form of governance, there is no opportunity for people's participation. This form of government is negligible in number. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the monarchy assumes absolute power.

Constitutional Monarchy: In the United Kingdom, constitutional monarchy exists. In this form of state, King or Queen becomes the head of state through inheritance or constitutional procedure. But he/she enjoys limited power. The real power of the state lies with the elected representatives of the people.

State based on Objectives

Welfare State

The state which works for the bare daily needs of the people is called a welfare state. This kind of state creates opportunities for employment, gives unemployment benefits and provides education and health to the people free of cost. Canada, UK, Sweden and Norway are examples of the welfare state. The features of this state are:

  • The states strengthen social security measures for the welfare of society. It fulfils the basic needs of the people such as food, clothing, education, health and shelter. The state provides road infrastructure, orphanages, temporary lodging, subsidy on food and employment opportunities. It also provides people with unemployment allowances, pensions and allowances for the handicapped.
  • The state imposes tax on solvent people at a higher rate and less tax on less solvent people. It provides assistance and rehabilitation to the poor and the destitute.
  • It fixes minimum wages for the interest of farmers, labourers and workers so that they can maintain their standard of living.
  • The state allows farmers, workers and labourers to form cooperatives.

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