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Semiconductor and Electronics

Semiconductor and Electronics Notes for Class 11 - 12 Learning Outcomes Explain band theory of solid materials Explain conductor, non-conductor, and semiconductor by band theory Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Explain the concept of electron and hole in semiconductors Explain the p-type and n-type semiconductor Explain the construction and function of the junction diode Explain rectification Explain the construction and function of a junction transistor Explain the use of transistor as amplifier and switch Explain conversion of a different number system Explain Binary operation Analysis of the program of different logic gate Explain band theory of solid materials Energy Band:   There is a slight difference in the energy of electrons revolving in the same orbit in an atom of any matter. The range between the maximum and minimum energy level of these electrons situated in the same orbit is called the energy band. The energy level and energy band are not the same. The energ

What are the benefits of VoLTE?

Superior call quality
The big advantage of VoLTE is that call quality is superior to 3G or 2G connections, as far more data can be transferred over 4G than 2G or 3G. Up to three times as much data as 3G and up to six times as much as 2G to be precise, making it easier to make out not only what the person on the other end of the line is saying, but also their tone of voice.

Essentially it’s an HD voice call and it’s a much richer experience overall.

Improved coverage and connectivity
VoLTE can connect calls up to twice as fast as the current methods, and as 2G and 3G connections will still be available when there’s no 4G signal it simply means that there’s greater mobile coverage overall, as without VoLTE you wouldn’t be able to make or receive calls in places with a 4G signal but no 2G or 3G.

You might think that would be a rare occurrence, but some of the frequencies that 4G operates on, such as the 800MHz spectrum, have far greater reach than 2G or 3G spectrum, so you’ll be able to get signal further away from a mast or in buildings which other signals struggle to penetrate. Indeed, Three is fully relying on its 800MHz spectrum for VoLTE calls.

However, while 2G and 3G services have largely remained so far they aren’t as necessary as they used to be, and much of the spectrum used for 2G in particular could potentially be repurposed to increase capacity on 4G or 5G networks.

Better battery life
Smartphone users could also find their battery life increased with VoLTE, as without it whenever you make or receive a call your phone has to switch from 4G to 2G or 3G, since 4G calls aren’t supported, and then once the call is finished your phone switches back again. All that switching, plus the need to search for a different signal each time, can give the battery a significant hit.

Faster data
As you don’t have to switch to 3G when making a call with VoLTE, that means you can also keep using 4G for other functions on your phone while on a call. That’s handy if you’re multi-tasking. For example, browsing the web at the same time or downloading an app.

Works with Wi-Fi
4G Calling also offers the ability to seamlessly move between that and Wi-Fi Calling, without the call cutting out, so if you move away from one signal type you can continue on the other.

Video calling 
It’s also theoretically possible to make video calls over 4G, much like a Skype call, except you’d just use your mobile number and be able to use the regular dialler and call interface, so you can make and receive video calls from anyone else with VoLTE, rather than relying on separate accounts.

Three was the first and network to offer VoLTE, through a service dubbed 4G Super-Voice, which is widely available across the UK.

A large number of phones are compatible if bought direct from Three including the Samsung Galaxy S20 range, iPhone 11 range, Samsung Galaxy S10 range, Huawei P30 Pro, Xiaomi Mi Mix 3 5G, iPhone X, iPhone 8, Samsung Galaxy S8, Samsung Galaxy Note 8, LG G6, Sony Xperia XZ Premium, Huawei P10 and many more.

EE has a VoLTE service called 4G Calling, which is available everywhere on EE’s 4G network.

The service is only available on certain phones (and the selection is even more limited if you didn’t buy direct from EE), but many of the latest and most high-profile handsets are supported. 

Vodafone also has a VoLTE service called 4G Calling, and it’s available in the same places as its 4G network.

The service works with most high-profile phones from Apple, Samsung, Huawei, and Sony, among some others, but with the exception of Apple phones you must have bought your handset from Vodafone for 4G Calling to work on its network.

O2’s VoLTE service is also called 4G Calling, and it’s available in many cities across the UK, on a range of handsets from Apple, Samsung and Sony, plus a small number from OnePlus, Google and others. However as with most networks, some Android phones only work with it if bought direct from O2.

iD Mobile
iD Mobile offers VoLTE in the same locations as Three, so it’s widely available. It works on a large number of devices, with a focus on recent Samsung, Apple, Huawei and Sony ones.

BT Mobile
BT Mobile offers 4G Calling in the same places as EE, so again, it’s widely available, and it works with any iPhone from the iPhone 6 onwards, as well as a number of Android phones.

Sky Mobile
Sky Mobile uses O2’s network for VoLTE (and everything else). However its VoLTE is very limited, as at the time of writing Sky claims it only works on the Samsung Galaxy S9 and Samsung Galaxy S9 Plus.


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